If you long for the days of neighborhood block parties or being able to borrow a cup of sugar from your neighbor, traditional new housing developments, while designed to offer plenty of privacy, offer almost no community. For those focused on advancing society, improving community and preserving nature and the environment we live and work in, the growth of cohousing is a welcome sign on the door to a more enlightened society.
"Cohousing communities combine the advantages of private homes with the benefits of more sustainable living, including shared common facilities and ongoing connections with neighbors," writes the Cohousing Association of the United States. "These intentional neighborhoods, created and managed by residents, offer an innovative solution to today's environmental and social challenges."
Cohousing is a type of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their own neighborhoods. Cohousing residents, who are consciously committed to living as a community, benefit from the physical design that encourages both social contact and individual space. Private homes contain all the features of conventional homes, but residents also have access to common facilities such as open space, courtyards, a playground and a common house.
The six defining characteristics of cohousing, per the Cohousing Association of the United States, include:
1) Participatory process. Future residents participate in the design of the community so that it meets their needs. Some cohousing communities are initiated or driven by a developer. In those cases, if the developer brings the future resident group into the process late in the planning, the residents will have less input into the design. A well-designed, pedestrian-oriented community without significant resident participation in the planning may be "cohousing-inspired," but it is not a cohousing community.
2) Neighborhood design. The physical layout and orientation of the buildings (the site plan) encourage a sense of community. For example, the private residences are clustered on the site, leaving more shared open space. The dwellings typically face each other across a pedestrian street or courtyard, with cars parked on the periphery. Often, the front doorway of every home affords a view of the common house. What far outweighs any specifics, however, is the intention to create a strong sense of community, with design as one of the facilitators.
3) Common facilities. Common facilities are designed for daily use, are an integral part of the community, and are always supplemental to the private residences. The common house typically includes a common kitchen, dining area, sitting area, children's playroom and laundry, and also may contain a workshop, library, exercise room, crafts room and/or one or two guest rooms. Except on very tight urban sites, cohousing communities often have playground equipment, lawns and gardens as well. Since the buildings are clustered, larger sites may retain several or many acres of undeveloped shared open space.
4) Resident management. Residents manage their own cohousing communities, and also perform much of the work required to maintain the property. They participate in the preparation of common meals, and meet regularly to solve problems and develop policies for the community.
5) Non-hierarchical structure and decision-making. Leadership roles naturally exist in cohousing communities; however no one person (or persons) has authority over others. Most groups start with one or two "burning souls." As people join the group, each person takes on one or more roles consistent with his or her skills, abilities or interests. Most cohousing groups make all of their decisions by consensus, and, although many groups have a policy for voting if the group cannot reach consensus after a number of attempts, it is rarely or never necessary to resort to voting.
6) No shared community economy. The community is not a source of income for its members. Occasionally, a cohousing community will pay one of its residents to do a specific (usually time-limited) task, but more typically the work will be considered that member's contribution to the shared responsibilities.
According to Wikipedia, the modern theory of cohousing originated in Denmark in the 1960s among groups of families who were dissatisfied with existing housing and communities that they felt did not meet their needs. Today, hundreds of cohousing communities exist in Denmark and other countries in northern Europe. The Danish term bofællesskab (living community) was introduced to North America as cohousing by two American architects, Kathryn McCamant and Charles Durrett, whose firm offers day-long cohousing tours in Northern California, Massachusetts and Colorado.
Builders beware. With nearly 100 operating communities in the United States and more than 100 others in the planning phases, and with real estate consumers longing for community, what's old is what's new again.