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HEATING Index of Building Construction diagrams House illustrations

Use the House illustrations Index pages to find specific diagram pictures. For example, if you would like to find illustration diagrams of "electrical wires", you could use the find feature of your web browser to search for "electrical" or "wires" on the House illustrations Index pages. You can then click the linked text to open the pages with those pictures. Also, you can use the House Illustration navigation menus for the specific category to find and view the diagram pictures.

 

HEATING FURNACES - GAS AND OIL HEATING - INTRODUCTION
0700 How heat is generated
0701 British Thermal Unit (BTUs)
0702 Cool spots
0703 Cold floors
0704 The outdoor fire
0705 Fire comes inside
0706 The hole in the roof
0707 Homes built with holes
0708 Fire gets contained
0709 Building a chimney
0710 Gravity furnace
0711 House air flow
0712 The fire triangle

HEATING - HEAT TRANSFER
0713 Methods of heat transfer
0714 Electric radiant heat
0715 Insulation behind radiators
0716 Radiator covers

HEATING - GAS PIPING AND METERS
0717 Gas service line and outdoor meter
0718 Ice on regulator
0719 Poor meter locations
0720 Gas piping terminology
0721 Flexible gas appliance connectors
0722 Teflon tape at connections
0723 Flexible copper tubing for gas piping
0724 Gas shut off valves
0725 Grounding the gas piping
0726 Gas piping support
0727 Drip leg
0728 Gas service line and outdoor meter

HEATING - COMBUSTION AIR
0729 Combustion air
0730 Three kinds of draft
0731 Natural draft burners
0732 Draft hoods
0733 Backdrafting
0734 Furnace room air openings
0735 Outside air supply
0736 Backdrafting
0737 Gas burners

HEATING - GAS BURNERS
0738 Monoport burners
0739 Gas supply to burners
0740 Crossover igniters
0741 Refractory-fire pot
0742 Gas supply to burners
0743 Thermostat - bi-metallic (mercury bulb)
0744 Continuous pilot light
0745 Pilot light - relighting
0746 Scorching
0747 Heat shield or flame rollout shield

HEATING - HEAT EXCHANGERS
0748 Heat exchanger heat flow
0749 Draft hoods
0750 House air flow
0751 Exhaust breech through cold air return
0752 Heat pump coil upstream of heat exchanger
0753 Downflow and upflow furnaces
0754 Horizontal gas-fired furnace

HEATING - FURNACE CABINETS
0755 Fan cover missing
0756 Furnace covers
0757 Draft hoods
0758 Furnace clearances

HEATING - FAN - LIMIT SWITCHES
0759 Fan switch
0760 Fan-limit switch
0761 Fan-limit switch set wrong or defective

HEATING - THERMOSTATS
0762 Thermostat - bi-metallic (mercury bulb)
0763 Thermostat - bi-metallic (snap-action)
0764 Variable thermostat anticipator
0765 Thermostat must be level

HEATING - VENTING GAS FURNACES
0766 Draft hoods
0767 Vent connector slope
0768 Vent connector length
0769 Vent connector support
0770 Combustible clearances for vent connectors and B-vents
0771 Size of vent connector
0772 Chimney-vent connections
0773 Vent connector extends too far into chimney
0774 Backdrafting

HEATING - DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
0775 House air flow
0776 Typical supply and return register locations
0777 Distribution components for forced air heating
0778 Factors affecting air supply

HEATING - BLOWERS
0779 Blowers - belt drive and direct drive
0780 Fan belts on furnace blowers

HEATING - AIR FILTERS AND CLEANERS
0781 Air filter orientation
0782 Electronic air cleaner
0783 Electronic air cleaner problems
0784 Electronic air cleaner - installed backwards-parts missing

HEATING - HUMIDIFIERS
0785 Drum-type humidifier
0786 Trickle humidifier
0787 Air flow through humidifier
0788 Humidifier above heat exchanger

HEATING - DUCT SYSTEMS, REGISTERS AND GRILLS
0789 Return ducts in floor joists
0790 Supply air registers, diffusers and grills
0791 Renovations remove ducts
0792 High and low returns
0793 Ducts in concrete floor slabs
0794 Supply and return registers poorly located
0795 Basement heat registers
0796 Return grill in furnace room
0797 Air return outside room

HEATING - MID-EFFICIENCY FURNACES
0798 Intermittent pilot light
0799 Hot surface ignition
0800 Three kinds of draft
0801 Blockage switches
0802 Improper side wall venting of gas appliances

HEATING - CONDENSING FURNACES
0803 High efficiency furnaces have long heat exchangers
0804 Condensation in high efficiency furnaces
0805 Maximizing temperature differences
0806 Venting for high efficiency furnaces
0807 Improper side wall vent locations
0808 Safety devices for high efficiency furnaces
0809 Pulse furnace - how it works
0810 Pulse furnace heat exchanger components
0811 High efficiency furnaces and duct sizes
0812 Automatic vent dampers
0813 Inspecting high efficiency furnaces
0814 Inspecting high efficiency furnaces
0815 Improper side wall vent locations
0816 Venting for high efficiency furnaces

HEATING - GRAVITY FURNACES
0817 Gravity furnaces

HEATING - COMBINATION FURNACES
0818 Combination furnace-water heater system
0819 Tempering valve - combination system

HEATING - OIL FURNACES
0820 Buried oil storage tank
0821 Exterior above ground oil storage tank
0822 Oil storage tanks - clearance from oil burner
0823 Oil storage tank leaks
0824 Underground oil storage tank
0825 Fill and vent piping
0826 Caps for fill and vent pipes on oil storage tanks
0827 Undersized fill lines
0828 Oil furnace emergency shutoffs
0829 Atomizing oil burner
0830 Oil burner with flame retention head
0831 Primary control
0832 Inspecting an oil burner
0833 Refractory-fire pot
0834 Primary control
0835 Flame sensor
0836 Barometric damper
0837 Barometric damper (draft regulator) problems
0838 Spillage from barometric damper
0839 Exhaust flue slope
0840 Exhaust flue support
0841 Exhaust flue length
0842 Exhaust flue clearances
0843 Obstruction in exhaust flue
0844 Mid-efficiency oil furnace (sidewall vented)
0845 Improper side wall vent locations for oil furnaces

 

HOT WATER BOILERS

BOILER - INTRODUCTION
0846 How boilers work
0847 How radiators heat the air through convection
0848 Radiator covers
0849 Superheated water

BOILER - HEAT EXCHANGERS
0850 Heat exchangers
0851 Copper tube heat exchangers

BOILER - CONTROLS
0852 Pressure relief valve
0853 Pressure relief valve location
0854 Inspecting pressure relief valves
0855 High temperature limit switch
0856 Low water cut out
0857 Backflow preventer
0858 Pressure reducing valve location
0859 Backflow preventer installed backwards
0860 Temperature and pressure gauge
0861 Pressure reducing valve
0862 Combined pressure reducing valve and pressure relief valve
0863 Pressure set too low
0864 Do not operate air bleed valves
0865 Pressure reducing-relief valve installed backwards
0866 Air separators
0867 Aquastat - primary control
0868 Inoperative aquastat
0869 Pump control (combined with high limit)
0870 Zone control with pumps
0871 Zone control with valves
0872 Outdoor air temperature sensor
0873 Flow control valves

BOILER - DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS - page 1
0874 Open hydronic system
0875 Closed hydronic system
0876 Series loop
0877 One-pipe system
0878 Two-pipe system (direct return)
0879 Two-pipe system (reverse return)
0880 Balancing methods
0881 Expansion tank water levels
0882 Overflow pipe
0883 Conventional expansion tank
0884 Diaphragm tank
0885 Circulating pump
0886 Zone control with pumps
0887 Flow control valves
0888 Pipe corrosion
0889 Extending hot water systems
0890 Covering radiators reduces efficiency

BOILER - DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS - page 2
0891 Convector
0892 Finned tube baseboard
0893 Cast iron baseboard
0894 Mixing systems
0895 Radiators on ceilings or high on walls
0896 Radiator valve leaks
0897 Do not operate air bleed valves
0898 Hot water radiant heat
0899 Water blender on radiant system
0900 Tankless coil
0901 Side arm heater
0902 Spillage switch
0903 Bypass loop

BOILER - PULSE COMBUSTION
0904 Pulse combustion - how it works

 

CHIMNEYS

CHIMNEYS - INTRODUCTION
0950 Not required to inspect fireplace insert flue connections
0951 Chimneys
0952 Vents
0953 Chimneys are not supporting structures
0954 Warm chimneys are best
0955 Three kinds of draft
0956 Chimney extender
0957 Masonry chimneys

MASONRY CHIMNEYS - page 1
0958 Basic masonry chimney components
0959 Basic masonry chimney and fireplace components
0960 Chimney walls
0961 Lateral support for masonry chimneys
0962 Clay tile flue liners
0963 Chimney offsets
0964 Miter the flue liners
0965 Chimney clearances
0966 Chimneys supporting framing members
0967 What makes a good chimney cap?
0968 Chimney deterioration
0969 Removing abandoned chimneys
0970 Causes of chimney settling or leaning
0971 Tall masonry chimneys
0972 3-sided chimneys
0973 Bracket chimneys
0974 Flue divider missing
0975 Chimney leaning above roof line

MASONRY CHIMNEYS - page 2
0976 Chimney offsets
0977 Proper chimney height
0978 Chimney height above appliance
0979 Fireplace cleanout - door too close to combustibles
0980 Incomplete liner
0981 Fire stopping
0982 What makes a good chimney cap?
0983 Rain caps and spark arresters
0984 Improper slope on cap
0985 Drip edge on cap
0986 Creosote deposits
0987 Vent connector extends too far into chimney
0988 Vent connector loose at chimney
0989 Flue or vent connector obstructed
0990 Abandoned flue openings
0991 Chimney extender
0992 Two fireplaces on one flue
0993 Two gas appliances on one flue
0994 Wood below oil on same floor level

METAL CHIMNEYS OR VENTS
0995 Type "B" vent
0996 Type "L" vent
0997 Class "A" chimney
0998 Triple-wall metal chimney
0999 650 degree C chimneys
1000 Connections of metal vent pieces
1001 Metal chimney bracing
1002 Metal chimney combustible clearances
1003 Fire stopping
1004 Missing chimney cap
1005 Rusting and-or pitting metal chimneys
1006 Chimney height
1007 Excessive offset from vertical
1008 Metal chimney not continuous through roof
1009 Adjacent chimneys of different heights

 

WOOD HEATING SYSTEMS

WOOD HEATING - INTRODUCTION
1010 Not required to inspect fireplace insert flue connections
1011 Wood burning furnaces, boilers, fireplaces and stoves
1012 Heat content of various fuels

WOOD HEATING - FURNACES AND BOILERS
1013 Components of wood furnaces
1014 Ventilation-cooling air for wood furnaces
1015 Combustion air damper arrangement
1016 How a combustion air damper works
1017 Forced draft combustion for wood furnace
1018 Combustion chamber (firebox)
1019 Two combustion chambers
1020 Heat exchangers should not have nooks and crannys
1021 Checking the barometric damper
1022 Vent connector combustible clearances
1023 Joining vent connector sections
1024 Vent connector support and slope
1025 Thermostat conditions to watch for
1026 Fan-limit switch
1027 Duct clearances - typical
1028 Combustible return ducts
1029 Add-on wood furnace (downstream series)
1030 Add-on wood furnace (divider plate method)
1031 Wood furnace not downstream
1032 Duct arrangement allows reverse flow
1033 Dual fuel furnace (wood-oil)

WOOD HEATING - WOOD STOVES (SPACE HEATERS)
1034 Wood stove components
1035 Wood below oil on same floor level
1036 Don’t confine wood stoves
1037 Chimney liners often required for fireplace inserts
1038 Convective wood stoves
1039 Advanced combustion wood stoves
1040 Catalytic combustors
1041 Bypass damper on catalytic wood stove
1042 Pellet stoves
1043 Wood stove floor protection - masonry (legs less than 3 inches tall)
1044 Wood stove floor protection - masonry (legs 3 inches to 7 inches tall)
1045 Wood stove floor protection - steel (legs 3 inches to 7 inches tall)
1046 Wood stove floor protection - masonry (legs more than 7 inches tall)
1047 Wood stove floor protection - steel (legs more than 7 inches tall)
1048 Clearances for unlisted wood stoves
1049 Vent connector clearances
1050 Wall shields - metal
1051 Wall shields
1052 Firewood is combustible
1053 Clearance from oil tanks
1054 Wood stove vent connector slope
1055 Wood stove vent connections
1056 Draw bands or adjustable connectors
1057 Poor vent connection at chimney
1058 Wood below oil on same floor level
1059 Testing dampers

WOOD HEATING - WOOD BURNING FIREPLACES - page 1
1060 Three kinds of fireplaces
1061 Masonry fireplace components
1062 Combustible clearance requirements
1063 Basement fireplaces
1064 Problematic fireplace designs
1065 Fireplace footings
1066 Causes of chimney settling
1067 Hearth materials
1068 Metal spark strip
1069 Hearth extension dimensions
1070 Raised hearths
1071 Hearth extensions for factory built fireplaces
1072 Remove hearth extension forming boards
1073 Firebrick on walls
1074 Metal firebox clearance
1075 Flue liner should not rest on metal firebox
1076 Coal burning fireplaces
1077 Lintel rusting, sagging or loose

WOOD HEATING - WOOD BURNING FIREPLACES - page 2
1078 Firebox damper
1079 Damper at top of chimney
1080 Missing damper
1081 Low damper
1082 Throat, smokeshelf and smoke chamber
1083 Smoke chamber - wall slope
1084 Smoke chamber forms must be removed
1085 Fireplace breast
1086 Settled (gap at wall)
1087 Clearance from fireplace opening
1088 Ashpit
1089 Outdoor combustion air
1090 Insulating combustion air ducts
1091 Outdoor intake screening
1092 Combustion air duct clearances
1093 Glass doors
1094 Heat circulators
1095 Gas igniters

 

STEAM HEATING SYSTEMS

STEAM HEATING - HOW THEY WORK
1096 How steam systems work
1097 Steam system operation: at rest
1098 Steam system operation: call for heat
1099 Air vents
1100 Dimension "A"
1101 Equalizer pipe
1102 Steam system operation: thermostat is satisfied
1103 Hartford loop

STEAM HEATING - COMMON STEAM SYSTEMS
1104 One pipe counterflow system
1105 One pipe parallel flow system
1106 Two pipe system
1107 Thermostatic trap
1108 F and T trap (float and thermostat trap)
1109 Location of condensate pump
1110 Condensate pump
1111 (Not used)
1112 Location of boiler feed pump
1113 Boiler feed pump

STEAM HEATING - STEAM CONTROLS: KEEPING IT SAFE
1114 Location of low water cut-out
1115 Pressure relief valve
1116 Location of pressuretrol
1117 Hartford Loop and equalizer

STEAM HEATING - STEAM BOILER PROBLEMS
1118 Water hammer
1119 Low water cut-out for steam boiler
1120 Water level gauge
1121 Pressuretrol
1122 Hartford Loop and equalizer - details
1123 Hartford Loop - close nipple missing
1124 Air vents
1125 Main air vent
1126 F and T trap (float and thermostat trap)
1127 Condensate pump
1128 Boiler feed pump
1129 One pipe parallel flow system
1130 Two pipe system
1131 Low water cut-out for steam boiler

 

ELECTRIC HEATING SYSTEMS

ELECTRIC HEATING -INTRODUCTION
1132 Current flow = amperage
1133 BTUs per hour compared to Kilowatts
1134 Equivalent furnaces
1135 5 to 8 watts per square foot
1136 Wire, fuse and heater sizing

ELECTRIC HEATING - SPACE HEATERS
1137 Floor mounted electric heaters
1138 Toekick electric heaters
1139 Electric wall heater - fan operated
1140 Best location for electric heaters
1141 Wiring for electric space heaters
1142 Determining baseboard heater wattage - rule of thumb
1143 Electric baseboard heaters - clearances to draperies
1144 Outlets should not be above electric baseboard heaters

ELECTRIC HEATING - ELECTRIC FURNACES
1145 Sequencers
1146 Fan limit switch
1147 Plenum heater
1148 Ampmeter testing of electric furnace
1149 Excess temperature rise

ELECTRIC HEATING - ELECTRIC BOILERS
1150 Electric boiler

ELECTRIC HEATING - RADIANT HEATING
1151 Electric radiant heat - ceilings
1152 Electric radiant heat - floors

 

WALL AND FLOOR FURNACES, ROOM HEATERS AND GAS FIREPLACE

WALL FURNACES
1153 Wall furnace
1154 Minimum wall furnace clearances
1155 Wall furnace venting
1156 Firestop spacers
1157 Minimum vent height
1158 Wall furnace - direct vent

FLOOR FURNACES
1159 Unvented wall furnace
1160 Minimum floor furnace clearances
1161 Inspection cap missing or damaged

ROOM HEATERS
1162 Room heaters - combustible clearances
1163 Wall furnace - direct vent
1164 Unvented space heater
1165 Fireplace damper not fixed open

GAS FIREPLACES AND GAS LOGS
1166 Gas fireplace location restrictions
1167 Gas fireplace - direct vent
1168 Gas fireplace - combustible clearances

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