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STRUCTURE Index of Building Construction diagrams House illustrations

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STRUCTURAL FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTION
0200 Overview of house structure
0201 Soil pressure on foundation walls
0202 Evidence of frost heaving
0203 Bearing strength of soils
0204 Two situations where frost heaving is very unlikely
0205 Frost heaving of unheated houses
0206 Slab-on-grade - floating slab
0207 Slab-on-grade - supported slab
0208 Slab-on-grade - monolithic slab
0209 Spread footings and pad footings
0210 Pile foundations
0211 Pier foundations
0212 Brick foundation with masonry exterior walls
0213 Stone foundation with masonry exterior walls
0214 Stone foundation with wood frame exterior walls
0215 Raft and mat foundations
0216 Preserved wood foundations
0217 Control joints in foundation walls

STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS - page 1
0218 Types of settlement
0219 Differential settlement caused by variable soil types
0220 Ravine lots
0221 Building settlement due to cut and fill excavation
0222 Analyzing crack size
0223 Frost heaving of footings
0224 Crack shapes
0225 Mud jacking to stabilize a settled foundation
0226 Using a helical anchor to stabilize a settled foundation
0227 Using piles to stabilize a settled foundation
0228 Using rods and channels to stabilize a settled house
0229 Step footings on sloped lots
0230 Lowering basement floors - bench footing
0231 Lowering basement floors - underpinning
0232 Underpinning - timing of concrete pours
0233 Rotational settlement cracks
0234 Cracking - common locations
0235 Frost heaving of footings

STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS - page 2
0236 Sources of heaving
0237 Evidence of frost heaving
0238 Exterior basement stairwell - side view
0239 Insulated exterior basement stairwell - side view
0240 Frost heaving of unheated houses
0241 Effects of adfreezing
0242 Adfreezing and deck piers
0243 Heaving of deck piers
0244 Foundation movement associated with horizontal cracks
0245 Floors provide lateral support for foundations
0246 Horizontal cracks and movement - 3 different possibilities
0247 Beam punching through foundation wall
0248 Excess brick overhang resulting from bowing foundation
0249 Lateral support for foundation walls
0250 Vertical foundation cracks
0251 Determining height of backfill
0252 How driveways can contribute to foundation cracking
0253 Foundation cracks related to tree roots
0254 Backfill-related foundation cracks
0255 Basement floors provide lateral support

STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS - page 3
0256 Foundation repairs - adding a buttress
0257 Foundation repairs - adding a pilaster
0258 Foundation repairs - reinforcing from inside
0259 Foundation repairs - using steel tie-backs
0260 Foundation repairs - adding an interior wall
0261 Foundation repairs - adding a sister wall outside
0262 Spalling of poured concrete foundations
0263 The 1-3 rule for wall stability
0264 Piers - things to watch for
0265 Masonry piers - hollow channels must be vertical
0266 Wooden piers - things to look for
0267 Pilaster pulling away from wall
0268 Cold joints in poured concrete foundations
0269 Honeycombing in poured concrete foundations
0270 Foundation wall too short (soil level too high)
0271 Lateral support for foundation walls

 

FLOORS

FLOORS - INTRODUCTION
0272 Floors provide lateral support for foundations
0273 Allowable floor deflections
0274 Distribution of floor loads
0275 Air gaps around ends of wooden beams
0276 Nails are good in shear but poor in tension

FLOORS - SILLS
0277 Brick veneer wall
0278 Sill anchors
0279 Sills should be above grade
0280 Mud sills
0281 Sill anchor spacing
0282 Gaps under sills
0283 Sill crushing

FLOORS - COLUMNS
0284 Column types
0285 Reasons for column settling
0286 Column crushing
0287 The 1-3 rule for column stability
0288 Column sizes
0289 Column buckling
0290 Column connections
0291 Rising damp in masonry columns

FLOORS - BEAMS
0292 Beams - shown in relation to house structure
0293 Stresses in beams
0294 Load transfer
0295 Mounting joists onto steel beams
0296 Continuous beams are stiffer than simply spanned beams
0297 Sight along beams to check for sag
0298 Support for beam ends
0299 Air gaps around ends of wooden beams
0300 Rotated or twisted beams
0301 Notches or holes not allowed in beams
0302 Nailing of built-up wooden beams
0303 Bolting of built-up wooden beams
0304 Beam bearing - simple versus continuous beams
0305 Column connections
0306 Examples of weak joist-beam connections
0307 Watch for insufficient nails in joist hangers
0308 Lateral support for steel beams
0309 Lateral support for wooden beams
0310 Concentrated loads - removing or altering walls

FLOORS - JOISTS
0311 Different types of floor joists
0312 Lateral support for masonry walls
0313 Bowing of masonry walls
0314 Fire cut joists
0315 Joist installation - crown up versus crown down
0316 Rim joists
0317 Two methods for improving sagging joists
0318 Strapping, bridging and blocking
0319 Hump in floor caused by excessive joist overlap
0320 Different types of joist end support
0321 Examples of weak joist-beam connections
0322 Watch for insufficient nails in joist hangers
0323 Joists attached to beams with ledger boards
0324 Mortise and tenon joints
0325 Strapping, bridging and blocking
0326 Joist notching and drilling
0327 Common causes of cracked joists
0328 Cantilevered joists
0329 Openings in floor structures
0330 Interior walls - (non-loadbearing)
0331 Wall over a trimmer
0332 Engineered wood for floors

SUBFLOORING
0333 Types of subflooring
0334 Plywood subflooring
0335 Subflooring edge support
0336 Alternatives for installing ceramic tiles

CONCRETE FLOOR SLABS
0337 Pre-stressed and post-tensioned concrete floor slabs
0338 Cold joints along edge of slabs

 

WALL SYSTEMS

SOLID MASONRY WALLS
0339 Solid masonry walls
0340 Masonry cavity wall
0341 Brick veneer wall
0342 Brick wall terminology
0343 Masonry wall using a diagonal brick bond
0344 Lateral support for exterior masonry walls
0345 Walls that extend above ceiling joists
0346 Steel lintel in brick veneer wall
0347 Wood lintel in solid masonry wall
0348 Arch outside and wood lintel inside
0349 Crack types
0350 Cracks caused by one surface sliding against another
0351 Cracking - planes of movement
0352 Rotational settlement cracks
0353 Cracking - common locations
0354 Roof truss uplift
0355 Garage settlement
0356 Lintel related wall cracks
0357 Bowing of masonry walls
0358 Bowed brick veneer wall - older home
0359 Walls that extend above ceiling joists
0360 Bowing of solid masonry wall due to tie failure
0361 Cracks due to clay brick expansion
0362 Using rods and channels to stabilize a settled house
0363 Corbelling
0364 Projections for veneer
0365 Blocks and bricks - hollow channels must be vertical

WOOD FRAME WALLS
0366 Platform versus balloon framing
0367 Interior walls - (non-loadbearing)
0368 Wood frame bearing wall - top plate T-connection
0369 Holes and notches in top plates of bearing walls
0370 Metal ties for connections in single top plates
0371 Load bearing wall with lintel
0372 Wall strength - stud sizes and spaces
0373 Wall plate overhangs
0374 Support for jack studs
0375 Wood frame bearing wall - in basement
0376 Wood frame wall - racking resistance
0377 Installing oriented strandboard
0378 Stud notching and drilling
0379 Identifying bearing and partition walls
0380 Common rot locations in walls
0381 Wood-soil clearances
0382 Wood frame wall - racking resistance
0383 Wood frame bearing wall - in basement
0384 Stud notching
0385 Straightening partition studs
0386 Concentrated loads - removing or altering walls
0387 Support for jack studs on wide openings
0388 Offset bearing walls
0389 Sagging interior lintel

MASONRY VENEER WALLS
0390 Brick veneer wall - construction detail
0391 Brick veneer wall - masonry tie detail
0392 Brick veneer wall
0393 Weep holes - vented rain screen principle
0394 Weep holes in brick veneer walls
0395 Veneer versus solid masonry
0396 Bowed brick veneer - older home
0397 Wood-soil clearances
0398 Lintel related wall cracks
0399 Steel lintel in brick veneer wall

ARCHES AND LINTELS
0400 Lintel loads in a masonry wall
0401 Lintel loads in wood frame walls
0402 Steel lintel in brick veneer wall
0403 Masonry arches - cracking due to lateral thrust
0404 Lintel related wall cracks
0405 End bearing for steel lintel
0406 Wood lintel bearing

 

ROOF FRAMING

ROOF - INTRODUCTION
0407 Roof types
0408 Roof slopes
0409 Anchoring the roof to the walls
0410 Roof spreading, dishing and sagging

RAFTERS, ROOF JOISTS AND CEILING JOISTS
0411 Roof joists versus roof rafters
0412 Overlapped ceiling joist splices
0413 Plywood ceiling joist splices
0414 Rafter endbearing
0415 Hip and valley rafters
0416 Horizontal projection
0417 Ridge support
0418 Ridge boards
0419 Ridge board - not required
0420 Gable wall
0421 Gable overhang less than 16 inches
0422 Gable overhang more than 16 inches
0423 Dormer framing
0424 Soffits
0425 Roof spreading
0426 Roof spreading - remedial action
0427 Rafter endbearing
0428 Dormer framing
0429 Watch for insufficient nails in joist hangers
0430 Openings in roofs

ROOF - COLLAR TIES
0431 Methods of reducing rafter spans

ROOF - KNEE WALLS AND PURLINS
0432 Methods of reducing rafter spans

ROOF - TRUSSES
0433 Roof trusses - overview
0434 Bracing of compression webs
0435 Strapping the underside of trusses
0436 Truss types
0437 Drifting snow can cause truss sag-damage
0438 Roof truss uplift
0439 Roof truss uplift - remedial action
0440 Bracing of compression webs
0441 Roof trusses that are too long

ROOF - WOOD "I" JOISTS
0442 Wood "I" joists

ROOF - SHEATHING
0443 Installation of roof boards
0444 Installation of panel type roof sheathing
0445 H-clips and spacing for panel type roof sheathing

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