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Color - HEATING Index of Building Construction diagrams House illustrations

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HEATING

FURNACES - GAS and OIL
Introduction
----- 0700-co How heat is generated
----- 0701-co British Thermal Unit BTUs
----- 0702-co Cool spots
----- 0703-co Cold floors
----- 0704-co The outdoor fire
----- 0705-co Fire comes inside
----- 0706-co The hole in the roof
----- 0707-co Homes built with holes
----- 0708-co Fire gets contained
----- 0709-co Building a chimney
----- 0710-co Gravity furnace
----- 0711-co House air flow
----- 0712-co The fire triangle
Heat Transfer
----- 0713-co Methods of heat transfer
----- 0714-co Electric radiant heat
----- 0715-co Insulation behind radiators
----- 0716-co Radiator covers
----- 0717-co Conventional gas furnace
----- 0718-co Mid-efficiency gas furnace
----- 0719-co High efficiency gas furnace
Gas Piping and Meters
----- 0720-co Gas service line and outdoor meter
----- 0721-co Ice on regulator
----- 0722-co Poor meter locations
----- 0723-co Gas piping terminology
----- 0724-co Flexible gas appliance connectors
----- 0725-co Teflon tape at connections
----- 0726-co Flexible copper tubing for gas piping
----- 0727-co Gas shut off valves
----- 0728-co Grounding the gas piping
----- 0729-co Gas piping support
----- 0730-co Drip leg
----- 0731-co Gas service line and outdoor meter
Combustion Air
----- 0732-co Combustion air
----- 0733-co Three kinds of draft
----- 0734-co Natural draft burners
----- 0735-co Draft hoods
----- 0736-co Backdrafting
----- 0737-co Furnace room air openings
----- 0738-co Outside air supply
----- 0739-co Backdrafting
----- 0740-co Gas burners
Gas Burners
----- 0741-co Monoport burners
----- 0742-co Gas supply to burners
----- 0743-co Crossover igniters
----- 0744-co Refractory-fire pot
----- 0745-co Gas supply to burners
----- 0746-co Thermostat - bi-metallic mercury bulb
----- 0747-co Continuous pilot light
----- 0748-co Pilot light - relighting
----- 0749-co Scorching
----- 0750-co Heat shield or flame rollout shield
Heat Exchangers
----- 0751-co Heat exchanger heat flow
----- 0752-co Draft hoods
----- 0753-co House air flow
----- 0754-co Exhaust breech through cold air return
----- 0755-co Heat pump coil upstream of heat exchanger
----- 0756-co Downflow and upflow furnaces
----- 0757-co Horizontal gas-fired furnace
Furnace Cabinets
----- 0758-co Fan cover missing
----- 0759-co Furnace covers
----- 0760-co Draft hoods
----- 0761-co Furnace clearances
Fan-Limit Switches
----- 0762-co Fan switch
----- 0763-co Fan-limit switch
----- 0764-co Fan-limit switch set wrong or defective
Thermostats
----- 0765-co Thermostat - bi-metallic mercury bulb
----- 0766-co Thermostat - bi-metallic snap-action
----- 0767-co Variable thermostat anticipator
----- 0768-co Thermostat must be level
Venting Gas Furnaces
----- 0769-co Draft hoods
----- 0770-co Vent connector slope
----- 0771-co Vent connector length
----- 0772-co Vent connector support
----- 0773-co Combustible clearances for vent connectors and B-vents
----- 0774-co Size of vent connector
----- 0775-co Chimney-vent connections
----- 0776-co Vent connector extends too far into chimney
----- 0777-co Backdrafting
Distribution System
----- 0778-co House air flow
----- 0779-co Typical supply and return register locations
----- 0780-co Distribution components for forced air heating
----- 0781-co Factors affecting air supply
Blowers
----- 0782-co Blowers - belt drive and direct drive
----- 0783-co Fan belts on furnace blowers
Air Filters and Cleaners
----- 0784-co Air filter orientation
----- 0785-co Electronic air cleaner
----- 0786-co Electronic air cleaner problems
----- 0787-co Electronic air cleaner - installed backwards-parts missing
Humidifiers
----- 0788-co Drum-type humidifier
----- 0789-co Trickle humidifier
----- 0790-co Air flow through humidifier
----- 0791-co Humidifier above heat exchanger
Duct Systems and Registers and Grills
----- 0792-co Return ducts in floor joists
----- 0793-co Supply air registers and diffusers and grills
----- 0794-co Renovations remove ducts
----- 0795-co High and low returns
----- 0796-co Ducts in concrete floor slabs
----- 0797-co Supply and return registers poorly located
----- 0798-co Basement heat registers
----- 0799-co Return grill in furnace room
----- 0800-co Air return outside room
Mid-Efficiency Furnaces
----- 0801-co Intermittent pilot light
----- 0802-co Hot surface ignition
----- 0803-co Three kinds of draft
----- 0804-co Blockage switches
----- 0805-co Improper side wall venting of gas appliances
Condensing Furnaces
----- 0806-co High efficiency furnaces have long heat exchangers
----- 0807-co Condensation in high efficiency furnaces
----- 0808-co Maximizing temperature differences
----- 0809-co Venting for high efficiency furnaces
----- 0810-co Improper side wall vent locations
----- 0811-co Safety devices for high efficiency furnaces
----- 0812-co Pulse furnace - how it works
----- 0813-co Pulse furnace heat exchanger components
----- 0814-co High efficiency furnaces and duct sizes
----- 0815-co Automatic vent dampers
----- 0816-co Inspecting high efficiency furnaces
----- 0817-co Inspecting high efficiency furnaces
----- 0818-co Improper side wall vent locations
----- 0819-co Venting for high efficiency furnaces
Gravity Furnaces
----- 0820-co Gravity furnaces
Combination Furnaces
----- 0821-co Combination furnace-water heater system
----- 0822-co Tempering valve - combination system
Oil Furnaces
----- 0823-co Buried oil storage tank
----- 0824-co Exterior above ground oil storage tank
----- 0825-co Oil storage tanks - clearance from oil burner
----- 0826-co Oil storage tank leaks
----- 0827-co Underground oil storage tank
----- 0828-co Fill and vent piping
----- 0829-co Caps for fill and vent pipes on oil storage tanks
----- 0830-co Undersized fill lines
----- 0831-co Oil furnace emergency shutoffs
----- 0832-co Atomizing oil burner
----- 0833-co Oil burner with flame retention head
----- 0834-co Primary control
----- 0835-co Inspecting an oil burner
----- 0836-co Refractory-fire pot
----- 0837-co Primary control
----- 0838-co Flame sensor
----- 0839-co Barometric damper
----- 0840-co Barometric damper draft regulator problems
----- 0841-co Spillage from barometric damper
----- 0842-co Exhaust flue slope
----- 0843-co Exhaust flue support
----- 0844-co Exhaust flue length
----- 0845-co Exhaust flue clearances
----- 0846-co Obstruction in exhaust flue
----- 0847-co Mid-efficiency oil furnace sidewall vented
----- 0848-co Improper side wall vent locations for oil furnaces

HOT WATER BOILERS
Introduction
----- 0849-co How boilers work
----- 0850-co How radiators heat the air through convection
----- 0851-co Radiator covers
----- 0852-co Superheated water
----- 0853-co Conventional gas boiler
----- 0854-co High efficiency gas boiler
Heat Exchangers
----- 0855-co Heat exchangers
----- 0856-co Copper tube heat exchangers
Controls
----- 0857-co Pressure relief valve
----- 0858-co Pressure relief valve location
----- 0859-co Inspecting pressure relief valves
----- 0860-co High temperature limit switch
----- 0861-co Low water cut out
----- 0862-co Backflow preventer
----- 0863-co Pressure reducing valve location
----- 0864-co Backflow preventer installed backwards
----- 0865-co Temperature and pressure gauge
----- 0866-co Pressure reducing valve
----- 0867-co Combined pressure reducing valve and pressure relief valve
----- 0868-co Pressure set too low
----- 0869-co Do not operate air bleed valves
----- 0870-co Pressure reducing-relief valve installed backwards
----- 0871-co Air separators
----- 0872-co Aquastat - primary control
----- 0873-co Inoperative aquastat
----- 0874-co Pump control combined with high limit
----- 0875-co Zone control with pumps
----- 0876-co Zone control with valves
----- 0877-co Outdoor air temperature sensor
----- 0878-co Flow control valves
Distribution Systems
----- 0879-co Open hydronic system
----- 0880-co Closed hydronic system
----- 0881-co Series loop
----- 0882-co One-pipe system
----- 0883-co Two-pipe system direct return
----- 0884-co Two-pipe system reverse return
----- 0885-co Balancing methods
----- 0886-co Expansion tank water levels
----- 0887-co Overflow pipe
----- 0888-co Conventional expansion tank
----- 0889-co Diaphragm tank
----- 0890-co Circulating pump
----- 0891-co Zone control with pumps
----- 0892-co Flow control valves
----- 0893-co Pipe corrosion
----- 0894-co Extending hot water systems
----- 0895-co Covering radiators reduces efficiency
----- 0896-co Convector
----- 0897-co Finned tube baseboard
----- 0898-co Cast iron baseboard
----- 0899-co Mixing systems
----- 0900-co Radiators on ceilings or high on walls
----- 0901-co Radiator valve leaks
----- 0902-co Do not operate air bleed valves
----- 0903-co Hot water radiant heat
----- 0904-co Controls and mixing valve layout for radiant floor heat
----- 0905-co Water blender on radiant system
----- 0906-co Tankless coil
----- 0907-co Side arm heater
----- 0908-co Spillage switch
----- 0909-co Bypass loop
Pulse Combustion
----- 0910-co Pulse combustion - how it works

CHIMNEYS
Introduction
----- 0950-co Not required to inspect fireplace insert flue connections
----- 0951-co Chimneys
----- 0952-co Vents
----- 0953-co Chimneys are not supporting structures
----- 0954-co Warm chimneys are best
----- 0955-co Three kinds of draft
----- 0956-co Chimney extender
----- 0957-co Masonry chimneys
Masonry Chimneys
----- 0958-co Basic masonry chimney components
----- 0959-co Basic masonry chimney and fireplace components
----- 0960-co Chimney walls
----- 0961-co Lateral support for masonry chimneys
----- 0962-co Clay tile flue liners
----- 0963-co Chimney offsets
----- 0964-co Miter the flue liners
----- 0965-co Chimney clearances
----- 0966-co Chimneys supporting framing members
----- 0967-co What makes a good chimney cap
----- 0968-co Chimney deterioration
----- 0969-co Removing abandoned chimneys
----- 0970-co Causes of chimney settling or leaning
----- 0971-co Tall masonry chimneys
----- 0972-co 3-sided chimneys
----- 0973-co Bracket chimneys
----- 0974-co Flue divider missing
----- 0975-co Chimney leaning above roof line
----- 0976-co Chimney offsets
----- 0977-co Proper chimney height
----- 0978-co Chimney height above appliance
----- 0979-co Fireplace cleanout - door too close to combustibles
----- 0980-co Incomplete liner
----- 0981-co Fire stopping
----- 0982-co What makes a good chimney cap
----- 0983-co Rain caps and spark arresters
----- 0984-co Improper slope on cap
----- 0985-co Drip edge on cap
----- 0986-co Creosote deposits
----- 0987-co Vent connector extends too far into chimney
----- 0988-co Vent connector loose at chimney
----- 0989-co Flue or vent connector obstructed
----- 0990-co Abandoned flue openings
----- 0991-co Chimney extender
----- 0992-co Two fireplaces on one flue
----- 0993-co Two gas appliances on one flue
----- 0994-co Wood below oil on same floor level
----- 0995-co Deteriorated clay chimney liner
Metal Chimneys or Vents
----- 0996-co Type B vent
----- 0997-co Type L vent
----- 0998-co Class A chimney
----- 0999-co Triple-wall metal chimney
----- 1000-co 650EC chimneys
----- 1001-co Connections of metal vent pieces
----- 1002-co Metal chimney bracing
----- 1003-co Metal chimney combustible clearances
----- 1004-co Fire stopping
----- 1005-co Missing chimney cap
----- 1006-co Rusting and-or pitting metal chimneys
----- 1007-co Chimney height
----- 1008-co Excessive offset from vertical
----- 1009-co Metal chimney not continuous through roof
----- 1010-co Adjacent chimneys of different heights

WOOD HEATING SYSTEMS
Introduction
----- 1011-co Not required to inspect fireplace insert flue connections
----- 1012-co Wood burning furnaces and boilers and fireplaces and stoves
----- 1013-co Heat content of various fuels
Furnaces and Boilers
----- 1014-co Components of wood furnaces
----- 1015-co Ventilation-cooling air for wood furnaces
----- 1016-co Combustion air damper arrangement
----- 1017-co How a combustion air damper works
----- 1018-co Forced draft combustion for wood furnace
----- 1019-co Combustion chamber firebox
----- 1020-co Two combustion chambers
----- 1021-co Heat exchangers should not have nooks and crannies
----- 1022-co Checking the barometric damper
----- 1023-co Vent connector combustible clearances
----- 1024-co Joining vent connector sections
----- 1025-co Vent connector support and slope
----- 1026-co Thermostat conditions to watch for
----- 1027-co Fan-limit switch
----- 1028-co Duct clearances - typical
----- 1029-co Combustible return ducts
----- 1030-co Add-on wood furnace downstream series
----- 1031-co Add-on wood furnace divider plate method
----- 1032-co Wood furnace not downstream
----- 1033-co Duct arrangement allows reverse flow
----- 1034-co Dual fuel furnace wood-oil
Wood Stoves Space Heaters
----- 1035-co Wood stove components
----- 1036-co Wood below oil on same floor level
----- 1037-co Do not confine wood stoves
----- 1038-co Chimney liners often required for fireplace inserts
----- 1039-co Convective wood stoves
----- 1040-co Advanced combustion wood stoves
----- 1041-co Catalytic combustors
----- 1042-co Bypass damper on catalytic wood stove
----- 1043-co Pellet stoves
----- 1044-co Wood stove floor protection - masonry legs less than 3 inches tall
----- 1045-co Wood stove floor protection - masonry legs 3 inches to 7 inches tall
----- 1046-co Wood stove floor protection - steel legs 3 inches to 7 inches tall
----- 1047-co Wood stove floor protection - masonry legs more than 7 inches tall
----- 1048-co Wood stove floor protection - steel legs more than 7 inches tall
----- 1049-co Clearances for unlisted wood stoves
----- 1050-co Vent connector clearances
----- 1051-co Wall shields - metal
----- 1052-co Wall shields
----- 1053-co Firewood is combustible
----- 1054-co Clearance from oil tanks
----- 1055-co Wood stove vent connector slope
----- 1056-co Wood stove vent connections
----- 1057-co Draw bands or adjustable connectors
----- 1058-co Poor vent connection at chimney
----- 1059-co Wood below oil on same floor level
----- 1060-co Testing dampers
Wood Burning Fireplaces
----- 1061-co Three kinds of fireplaces
----- 1062-co Masonry fireplace components
----- 1063-co Combustible clearance requirements
----- 1064-co Basement fireplaces
----- 1065-co Problematic fireplace designs
----- 1066-co Fireplace footings
----- 1067-co Causes of chimney settling
----- 1068-co Hearth materials
----- 1069-co Metal spark strip
----- 1070-co Hearth extension dimensions
----- 1071-co Raised hearths
----- 1072-co Hearth extensions for factory built fireplaces
----- 1073-co Remove hearth extension forming boards
----- 1074-co Firebrick on walls
----- 1075-co Metal firebox clearance
----- 1076-co Flue liner should not rest on metal firebox
----- 1077-co Coal burning fireplaces
----- 1078-co Lintel rusting and sagging or loose
----- 1079-co Firebox damper
----- 1080-co Damper at top of chimney
----- 1081-co Missing damper
----- 1082-co Low damper
----- 1083-co Throat and smoke shelf and smoke chamber
----- 1084-co Smoke chamber - wall slope
----- 1085-co Smoke chamber forms must be removed
----- 1086-co Fireplace breast
----- 1087-co Settled gap at wall
----- 1088-co Clearance from fireplace opening
----- 1089-co Ashpit
----- 1090-co Outdoor combustion air
----- 1091-co Insulating combustion air ducts
----- 1092-co Outdoor intake screening
----- 1093-co Combustion air duct clearances
----- 1094-co Glass doors
----- 1095-co Heat circulators
----- 1096-co Gas igniters

STEAM HEATING SYSTEMS
How They Work
----- 1097-co How steam systems work
----- 1098-co Steam system operation - at rest
----- 1099-co Steam system operation - call for heat
----- 1100-co Air vents
----- 1101-co Dimension A
----- 1102-co Equalizer pipe
----- 1103-co Steam system operation - thermostat is satisfied
----- 1104-co Hartford loop
Common Steam Systems
----- 1105-co One pipe counterflow system
----- 1106-co One pipe parallel flow system
----- 1107-co Two pipe system
----- 1108-co Thermostatic trap
----- 1109-co F and T trap float and thermostat trap
----- 1110-co Location of condensate pump
----- 1111-co Condensate pump
----- 1112-co Location of boiler feed pump
----- 1113-co Boiler feed pump
Steam Controls - Keeping It Safe
----- 1114-co Location of low water cut-out
----- 1115-co Pressure relief valve
----- 1116-co Location of pressuretrol
----- 1117-co Hartford Loop and equalizer
Steam Boiler Problems
----- 1118-co Water hammer
----- 1119-co Low water cut-out for steam boiler
----- 1120-co Water level gauge
----- 1121-co Pressuretrol
----- 1122-co Hartford Loop and equalizer - details
----- 1123-co Hartford Loop - close nipple missing
----- 1124-co Air vents
----- 1125-co Main air vent
----- 1126-co F and T trap float and thermostat trap
----- 1127-co Condensate pump
----- 1128-co Boiler feed pump
----- 1129-co One pipe parallel flow system
----- 1130-co Two pipe system
----- 1131-co Low water cut-out for steam boiler

ELECTRIC HEATING SYSTEMS
Introduction
----- 1132-co Current flow equals amperage
----- 1133-co BTUs per hour compared to Kilowatts
----- 1134-co Equivalent furnaces
----- 1135-co 5 to 8 watts per square foot
----- 1136-co Wire and fuse and heater sizing
Space Heaters
----- 1137-co Floor mounted electric heaters
----- 1138-co Toekick electric heaters
----- 1139-co Electric wall heater - fan operated
----- 1140-co Best location for electric heaters
----- 1141-co Wiring for electric space heaters
----- 1142-co Determining baseboard heater wattage - rule of thumb
----- 1143-co Electric baseboard heaters - clearances to draperies
----- 1144-co Outlets should not be above electric baseboard heaters
Electric Furnaces
----- 1145-co Sequencers
----- 1146-co Fan limit switch
----- 1147-co Plenum heater
----- 1148-co Ampmeter testing of electric furnace
----- 1149-co Excess temperature rise
Electric Boilers
----- 1150-co Electric boiler
Radiant Heating
----- 1151-co Electric radiant heat - ceilings
----- 1152-co Electric radiant heat - floors

WALL AND FLOOR FURNACES and ROOM HEATERS and GAS FIREPLACES
Wall Furnaces
----- 1153-co Wall furnace
----- 1154-co Minimum wall furnace clearances
----- 1155-co Wall furnace venting
----- 1156-co Firestop spacers
----- 1157-co Minimum vent height
----- 1158-co Wall furnace - direct vent
Floor Furnaces
----- 1159-co Unvented wall furnace
----- 1160-co Minimum floor furnace clearances
----- 1161-co Inspection cap missing or damaged
Room Heaters
----- 1162-co Room heaters - combustible clearances
----- 1163-co Wall furnace - direct vent
----- 1164-co Unvented space heater
----- 1165-co Fireplace damper not fixed open
Gas Fireplaces and Gas Logs
----- 1166-co Gas fireplace location restrictions
----- 1167-co Gas fireplace - direct vent
----- 1168-co Gas fireplace - combustible clearances

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