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Color - STRUCTURE Index of Building Construction diagrams House illustrations

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STRUCTURE

Footings and Foundations
Description
----- 0200-co Overview of house structure
----- 0201-co Soil pressure on foundation walls
----- 0202-co Evidence of frost heaving
----- 0203-co Bearing strength of soils
----- 0204-co Two situations where frost heaving is very unlikely
----- 0205-co Frost heaving of unheated houses
----- 0206-co Slab-on-grade - floating slab
----- 0207-co Slab-on-grade - supported slab
----- 0208-co Slab-on-grade - monolithic slab
----- 0209-co Spread footings and pad footings
----- 0210-co Pile foundations
----- 0211-co Pier foundations
----- 0212-co Brick foundation with masonry exterior walls
----- 0213-co Stone foundation with masonry exterior walls
----- 0214-co Stone foundation with wood frame exterior walls
----- 0215-co Raft and mat foundations
----- 0216-co Preserved wood foundations
----- 0217-co Control joints in foundation walls
----- 0218-co Poured concrete foundation with wood frame exterior walls
----- 0219-co Concrete block foundation with masonry exterior walls
----- 0220-co Insulated concrete forms
Problems
----- 0221-co Types of settlement
----- 0222-co Differential settlement caused by variable soil types
----- 0223-co Ravine lots
----- 0224-co Building settlement due to cut and fill excavation
----- 0225-co Analyzing crack size
----- 0226-co Frost heaving of footings
----- 0227-co Crack shapes
----- 0228-co Mud jacking to stabilize a settled foundation
----- 0229-co Using a helical anchor to stabilize a settled foundation
----- 0230-co Using piles to stabilize a settled foundation
----- 0231-co Using rods and channels to stabilize a settled house
----- 0232-co Step footings on sloped lots
----- 0233-co Lowering basement floors - bench footing
----- 0234-co Lowering basement floors - underpinning
----- 0235-co Underpinning - timing of concrete pours
----- 0236-co Rotational settlement cracks
----- 0237-co Cracking - common locations
----- 0238-co Frost heaving of footings
----- 0239-co Sources of heaving
----- 0240-co Evidence of frost heaving
----- 0241-co Exterior basement stairwell - side view
----- 0242-co Insulated exterior basement stairwell - side view
----- 0243-co Frost heaving of unheated houses
----- 0244-co Effects of adfreezing
----- 0245-co Adfreezing and deck piers
----- 0246-co Heaving of deck piers
----- 0247-co Foundation movement associated with horizontal cracks
----- 0248-co Floors provide lateral support for foundations
----- 0249-co Horizontal cracks and movement - 3 different possibilities
----- 0250-co Beam punching through foundation wall
----- 0251-co Excess brick overhang resulting from bowing foundation
----- 0252-co Lateral support for foundation walls
----- 0253-co Vertical foundation cracks
----- 0254-co Determining height of backfill
----- 0255-co How driveways can contribute to foundation cracking
----- 0256-co Foundation cracks related to tree roots
----- 0257-co Backfill-related foundation cracks
----- 0258-co Basement floors provide lateral support
----- 0259-co Foundation repairs - adding a buttress
----- 0260-co Foundation repairs - adding a pilaster
----- 0261-co Foundation repairs - reinforcing from inside
----- 0262-co Foundation repairs - using steel tie-backs
----- 0263-co Foundation repairs - adding an interior wall
----- 0264-co Foundation repairs - adding a sister wall outside
----- 0265-co Spalling of poured concrete foundations
----- 0266-co The one-third rule for wall stability
----- 0267-co Piers - things to watch for
----- 0268-co Masonry piers - hollow channels must be vertical
----- 0269-co Wooden piers - things to look for
----- 0270-co Pilaster pulling away from wall
----- 0271-co Cold joints in poured concrete foundations
----- 0272-co Honeycombing in poured concrete foundations
----- 0273-co Foundation wall too short soil level too high
----- 0274-co Lateral support for foundation walls

FLOORS
Introduction
----- 0275-co Floors provide lateral support for foundations
----- 0276-co Allowable floor deflections
----- 0277-co Distribution of floor loads
----- 0278-co Air gaps around ends of wooden beams
----- 0279-co Nails are good in shear but poor in tension
Sills
----- 0280-co Brick veneer wall
----- 0281-co Sill anchors
----- 0282-co Sills should be above grade
----- 0283-co Mud sills
----- 0284-co Sill anchor spacing
----- 0285-co Gaps under sills
----- 0286-co Sill crushing
Columns
----- 0287-co Column types
----- 0288-co Reasons for column settling
----- 0289-co Column crushing
----- 0290-co The one-third rule for column stability
----- 0291-co Column sizes
----- 0292-co Column buckling
----- 0293-co Column connections
----- 0294-co Rising damp in masonry columns
Beams
----- 0295-co Beams - shown in relation to house structure
----- 0296-co Stresses in beams
----- 0297-co Load transfer
----- 0298-co Mounting joists onto steel beams
----- 0299-co Continuous beams are stiffer than simply spanned beams
----- 0300-co Sight along beams to check for sag
----- 0301-co Support for beam ends
----- 0302-co Air gaps around ends of wooden beams
----- 0303-co Rotated or twisted beams
----- 0304-co Notches or holes not allowed in beams
----- 0305-co Nailing of built-up wooden beams
----- 0306-co Bolting of built-up wooden beams
----- 0307-co Beam bearing - simple versus continuous beams
----- 0308-co Column connections
----- 0309-co Examples of weak joist-beam connections
----- 0310-co Watch for insufficient nails in joist hangers
----- 0311-co Lateral support for steel beams
----- 0312-co Lateral support for wooden beams
----- 0313-co Concentrated loads - removing or altering walls
Joists
----- 0314-co Different types of floor joists
----- 0315-co Lateral support for masonry walls
----- 0316-co Bowing of masonry walls
----- 0317-co Fire cut joists
----- 0318-co Joist installation - crown up versus crown down
----- 0319-co Rim joists
----- 0320-co Two methods for improving sagging joists
----- 0321-co Strapping and bridging and blocking
----- 0322-co Hump in floor caused by excessive joist overlap
----- 0323-co Different types of joist end support
----- 0324-co Examples of weak joist-beam connections
----- 0325-co Watch for insufficient nails in joist hangers
----- 0326-co Joists attached to beams with ledger boards
----- 0327-co Mortise and tenon joints
----- 0328-co Strapping and bridging and blocking
----- 0329-co Joist notching and drilling
----- 0330-co Common causes of cracked joists
----- 0331-co Cantilevered joists
----- 0332-co Openings in floor structures
----- 0333-co Interior walls - non-load bearing
----- 0334-co Wall over a trimmer
----- 0335-co Engineered wood for floors
----- 0336-co Wood I joist notching and drilling
Subflooring
----- 0337-co Types of subflooring
----- 0338-co Plywood subflooring
----- 0339-co Subflooring edge support
----- 0340-co Alternatives for installing ceramic tiles
Concrete Floor Slabs
----- 0341-co Pre-stressed and post-tensioned concrete floor slabs
----- 0342-co Cold joints along edge of slabs
Steel Framed Floors
----- 0343-co Typical assembly-components for steel framed floors
----- 0344-co Typical details for steel framed floors
Old Homes
----- 0345-co Excessive sagging around poorly framed stair openings
----- 0346-co Hump in floor due to joists extending over solid masonry wall
----- 0347-co Creed leading to sag in floor joists
Inspecting for Termites
----- 0348-co Vulnerabilities to subterranean termites - exterior
----- 0349-co Vulnerabilities to subterranean termites - interior
----- 0350-co Protective measures to combat subterranean termites

WALL SYSTEMS
Solid Masonry Walls
----- 0351-co Solid masonry walls
----- 0352-co Masonry cavity wall
----- 0353-co Brick veneer wall
----- 0354-co Brick wall terminology
----- 0355-co Masonry wall using a diagonal brick bond
----- 0356-co Lateral support for exterior masonry walls
----- 0357-co Walls that extend above ceiling joists
----- 0358-co Steel lintel in brick veneer wall
----- 0359-co Wood lintel in solid masonry wall
----- 0360-co Arch outside and wood lintel inside
----- 0361-co Crack types
----- 0362-co Cracks caused by one surface sliding against another
----- 0363-co Cracking - planes of movement
----- 0364-co Rotational settlement cracks
----- 0365-co Cracking - common locations
----- 0366-co Roof truss uplift
----- 0367-co Garage settlement
----- 0368-co Lintel related wall cracks
----- 0369-co Bowing of masonry walls
----- 0370-co Bowed brick veneer wall - older home
----- 0371-co Walls that extend above ceiling joists
----- 0372-co Bowing of solid masonry wall due to tie failure
----- 0373-co Cracks due to clay brick expansion
----- 0374-co Using rods and channels to stabilize a settled house
----- 0375-co Corbelling
----- 0376-co Projections for veneer
----- 0377-co Blocks and bricks - hollow channels must be vertical
Wood Frame Walls
----- 0378-co Platform versus balloon framing
----- 0379-co Interior walls non-load bearing
----- 0380-co Wood frame bearing wall - top plate T-connection
----- 0381-co Holes and notches in top plates of bearing walls
----- 0382-co Metal ties for connections in single top plates
----- 0383-co Load bearing wall with lintel
----- 0384-co Wall strength - stud sizes and spaces
----- 0385-co Wall plate overhangs
----- 0386-co Support for jack studs
----- 0387-co Wood frame bearing wall in basement
----- 0388-co Wood frame wall - racking resistance
----- 0389-co Installing oriented strandboard
----- 0390-co Stud notching and drilling
----- 0391-co Identifying bearing and partition walls
----- 0392-co Common rot locations in walls
----- 0393-co Wood-soil clearances
----- 0394-co Wood frame wall - racking resistance
----- 0395-co Wood frame bearing wall in basement
----- 0396-co Stud notching
----- 0397-co Straightening partition studs
----- 0398-co Concentrated loads - removing or altering walls
----- 0399-co Support for jack studs on wide openings
----- 0400-co Offset bearing walls
----- 0401-co Sagging interior lintel
Masonry Veneer Walls
----- 0402-co Brick veneer wall - construction detail
----- 0403-co Brick veneer wall - masonry tie detail
----- 0404-co Brick veneer wall
----- 0405-co Weep holes - vented rain screen principle
----- 0406-co Weep holes in brick veneer walls
----- 0407-co Veneer versus solid masonry
----- 0408-co Bowed brick veneer - older home
----- 0409-co Wood-soil clearances
----- 0410-co Lintel related wall cracks
----- 0411-co Steel lintel in brick veneer wall
Steel Framed Walls
----- 0412-co Typical assembly-components for light-gauge steel wall framing
----- 0413-co Lintels and bridging for light-gauge steel wall framing
----- 0414-co Bearing and bracing details for light-gauge steel walls
Arches and Lintels
----- 0415-co Lintel loads in a masonry wall
----- 0416-co Lintel loads in wood frame walls
----- 0417-co Steel lintel in brick veneer wall
----- 0418-co Masonry arches - cracking due to lateral thrust
----- 0419-co Lintel related wall cracks
----- 0420-co End bearing for steel lintel
----- 0421-co Wood lintel bearing

ROOF FRAMING
Introduction
----- 0422-co Roof types
----- 0423-co Roof slopes
----- 0424-co Anchoring the roof to the walls
----- 0425-co Roof spreading and dishing and sagging
Rafters and Roof Joists and Ceiling Joists
----- 0426-co Roof joists versus roof rafters
----- 0427-co Overlapped ceiling joist splices
----- 0428-co Plywood ceiling joist splices
----- 0429-co Rafter endbearing
----- 0430-co Hip and valley rafters
----- 0431-co Horizontal projection
----- 0432-co Ridge support
----- 0433-co Ridge boards
----- 0434-co Ridge board - not required
----- 0435-co Gable wall
----- 0436-co Gable overhang less than 16 inches
----- 0437-co Gable overhang more than 16 inches
----- 0438-co Dormer framing
----- 0439-co Soffits
----- 0440-co Roof spreading
----- 0441-co Roof spreading - remedial action
----- 0442-co Rafter endbearing
----- 0444-co Watch for insufficient nails in joist hangers
----- 0445-co Openings in roofs
Collar Ties and Knee Walls and Purlins
----- 0446-co Methods of reducing rafter spans
Steel Framed Rafters and Roof Joists and Ceiling Joists
----- 0447-co Typical assembly-components of steel framed roofs
----- 0448-co Typical details at steel framed roofs
Trusses
----- 0449-co Roof trusses - overview
----- 0450-co Bracing of compression webs
----- 0451-co Strapping the underside of trusses
----- 0452-co Truss types
----- 0453-co Drifting snow can cause truss sag-damage
----- 0454-co Roof truss uplift
----- 0455-co Roof truss uplift - remedial action
----- 0456-co Bracing of compression webs
----- 0457-co Roof trusses that are too long
Wood I Joists
----- 0458-co Wood I joists
Sheathing
----- 0459-co Installation of roof boards
----- 0460-co Installation of panel type roof sheathing
----- 0461-co H-clips and spacing for panel type roof sheathing

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